HH Research Articles

We are grateful to the publishers who have generously provided permission to link to many full articles pertaining to hypothalamic hamartomas below.  Other publishers have permitted us to include abstracts or summaries of articles.

 

We would thank Dr. Kerrigan, Dr. Rekate, Dr. Harvey, and Prof. Arzimanoglou who generously provided time and advice concerning these articles.

 

If you have other recent, scientific, peer reviewed research articles we should add to this collection, please contact us at info@hopeforhh.org

As research on hypothalamic hamartoma continues and researchers are gaining a better understanding of this condition and it's complex comorbidities.

Click here for the latest hypothalamic hamartoma publications from PubMed.gov.

HH Overview

Management of hypothalamic hamartomas: progress due to alignment of the stars Introduction

Harold L. Rekate, M.D., Neurosurg Focus 30(2) 2011 Journal of Neurosurgery

Read complete article

The evolution of treatment for hypothalamic hamartoma: a personal odyssey

Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld, M.D., M.S., F.R.A.C.S., Neurosurg Focus 30(2) E1 2011 Journal of Neurosurgery

ABSTRACT:The prognosis for patients with hypothalamic hamartoma has improved dramatically over the last 20 years, for 3 main reasons. First, because of improved understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of these varied lesions. Second, due to advances in brain imaging and refinements in microsurgery, including the anterior transcallosal interforniceal approach, endoscopic, and skull-base approaches. And third, because of increasing experience with stereotactic radiosurgery, interstitial radiotherapy, and radiofrequency lesioning. Patients with hypothalamic hamartoma should be managed in comprehensive epilepsy centers where the treatments are individualized and concentrated in the hands of surgeons who can perform the full range of surgery, including approaches to the third ventricle. Total seizure-freedom rates of 52% to 66% have been achieved with surgery.

Read complete article

Gelastic Seizures Associated with Hypothalamic Hamartomas

An Update in the Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis and Treatment, Tellez-Zenteno and others, Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2008, Vol 4(6) 1021-1031 © 2008 Dove Press

Read complete article

Surgical Management of Hypothalamic Hamartoma in Patients with Gelastic Epilepsy

Addas and others, Neurosurg. Focus 25(3) E8 2008 © 2008 Journal of Neurosurgery

ABSTRACT: Gelastic epilepsy (GE) associated with hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) is now a well-characterized clinical syndrome consisting of gelastic seizures starting in infancy, medically refractory seizures with or without the development of multiple seizure types, and behavioral and cognitive decline. It has been postulated that the development of the HHGE syndrome is a result of a progressive epileptic encephalopathy or secondary epileptogenesis, which is potentially reversible with treatment of the HH. A variety of surgical options for the treatment of HHs exist, including open and endoscopic procedures, radiosurgery, interstitial radiotherapy, and stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation. Surgical treatment can result in seizure freedom in up to 50% of patients and can be accompanied by significant improvements in behavior, cognition, and quality of life. Partial treatment of HHs may be sufficient to reduce seizure frequency and improve behavior and quality of life with less risk. A component of reversible cognitive dysfunction may be present in some patients with an HH-GE syndrome.

Read complete article

Introduction to [Hypothalamic Hamartomas]

John Kerrigan, Semin Pediatr Neurol 14:49-50 © 2007 Elsevier Inc

Read complete article

Cognitive, Behavioral and Psychiatric

Leiter-R Versus Developmental Quotient for Estimating Cognitive Function in Preschoolers with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

Portoghese and others, Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2010 vol 6 p337-342 © 2010 Portoghese et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Read complete article

Abnormal Auditory Forward Masking Pattern in the Brainstem Response of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome.

Kallstrand and others, Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2010 vol 6 p289-286 © 2010 Kallstrand et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Read complete article

Recurrent Schizophrenia-like Psychosis as First Manifestation of Epilepsy: A Diagnositic Challenge in Neuropsychiatry.

Verhoeven and others, Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2010 vol 6 p227-231 © 2010 Verhoeven et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Read complete article

Cognitive and Behavioral Dysfunction in Children with Hypothalamic Hamartoma and Epilepsy

George Prigatano, Semin Pediatr Neurol 14:65-72 © 2007 Elsevier Inc

Read complete article

Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Patients with Hypothalamic Hamartomas

M.J.B.M. Veendrick-Meekes, W.M.A. Verhoeven, M.G. van Erp,
W. van Blarikom, S. Tuinier, Epilepsy & Behavior 11: 218-221 © 2007 Elsevier Inc

Read complete article

Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adult Patients with Hypothalamic Hamartoma

Sherese Ali, John Moriarty, Nandini Mullatti, Anthony David, Epilepsy & Behavior 9:111–118 © 2006 Elsevier Inc

Read complete article

Developmental Delay and Epilepsy.

Bednarek and Motte, Epileptic Disorders 2006 vol 8(S1) S17-21 © 2006 Epileptic Disorders.

Epileptic Disorders Read complete article

Psychiatric Aspects of patients with Hypothalamic Hamartoma and Epilepsy

Savard and others, Epileptic Disorders, 2003 5 229-34

Epileptic Disorders Read complete article

Continuous Giggling and Autistic Disorder Associated with Hypothalamic Hamartoma

Jiminez and others, Epileptic Disorders 2003 5(1) 31-7

Epileptic Disorders Read complete article

Aggression and Psychiatric Co-Morbidity in Children with Hypothalamic Hamartomas and their Unaffected Siblings

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Volume 40, Issue 6 (June 2001) - Copyright © 2001 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Read complete article

Endocrinology

Surgical Excision of Hypothalamic Hamartoma in a Twenty Month Old Boy with Precocious Puberty

Rajesh K Ghanta, Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2011 September; 15(Suppl3): S255–S258.

Read complete article

Syndrome of alternating hypernatremia and hyponatremia after hypothalamic hamartoma surgery

Adib A. Abla, M.D., Scott D. Wait, M.D., Jonathan A. Forbes, M.D., Sandipan Pati, M.D., Roger E. Johnsonbaugh, M.D., Ph.D., John F. Kerrigan, M.D., and Yu-Tze Ng, M.D. Neurosurg Focus 30(2) E6 2011 Journal of Neurosurgery

ABSTRACT: In this paper, the authors' goal was to describe the occurrence of alternating hypernatremia and hyponatremia in pediatric patients who underwent resection of hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) for epilepsy. Hypernatremia in patients after pituitary or hypothalamic surgery can be caused by diabetes insipidus (DI), whereas hyponatremia can occur due to a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, cerebral salt wasting, or excessive administration of desmopressin (DDAVP). The triphasic response after surgery in the pituitary region can also explain variations in sodium parameters in such cases.

Object: One hundred fifty-three patients with HH who underwent surgery were enrolled in a prospective study to monitor outcomes. Of these, 4 patients (2.6%) were noted to experience dramatic alterations in serum sodium values. The medical records of these patients were identified and evaluated.

Methods: One hundred fifty-three patients with HH who underwent surgery were enrolled in a prospective study to monitor outcomes. Of these, 4 patients (2.6%) were noted to experience dramatic alterations in serum sodium values. The medical records of these patients were identified and evaluated.

Results: Patients' ages at surgery ranged from 1.2 to 6.0 years. All patients were girls. Two patients had Delalande Type IV lesions (of 16 total Type IV lesions surgically treated) and 2 had Type III lesions (of 39 total Type III lesions). All patients had a history of gelastic seizures refractory to medication. Seizure frequency ranged from 3 to 300 per day. After surgery, all patients experienced hypernatremia and hyponatremia. The largest fluctuation in serum sodium concentration during hospitalization in a single patient was 53 mEq/L (range 123–176 mEq/L). The mean absolute difference in maximum and minimum sodium values was 38.2 mEq/L. All patients exhibited an initial period of immediate DI (independent of treatment) after surgery followed by a period of hyponatremia (independent of treatment), with a minimum value occurring between postoperative Days 5 and 8. All patients then returned to a hypernatremic state of DI, and 3 patients still require DDAVP for DI management. A second occurrence of hyponatremia lasting several days without DDAVP administration occurred in 2 patients during their hospitalization between periods of hypernatremia. One patient stabilized in the normal range of sodium values prior to discharge from rehabilitation without the need for further intervention. At last follow-up, 3 patients are seizure-free.

Conclusions: Severe instability of sodium homeostasis with hypernatremia and hyponatremia is seen in up to 2.6% of children undergoing open resection of HH. This risk appears to be related to HH type, with a higher risk for Types III (2 [5.1%] of 39) and IV (2 [12.5%] of 16) lesions. Here, the authors describe alternating episodes of hypernatremia and hyponatremia in the postoperative period following HH surgery. Management of this entity requires careful serial assessment of volume status and urine concentration and will often require alternating salt replacement therapy with DDAVP administration.

Read complete article

The Endocrinology of Hypothalamic Hamartoma Surgery for Intractable Epilepsy

Freeman et al, Epileptic Disorders, 2003 5:239-47

Epileptic Disorders Read complete article

Dacrystic (Crying) Seizures

Giant hypothalamic hamartoma and dacrystic seizures

Lopez-Laso et al, Epileptic Disorders 2007 9(1): 90-3

Epileptic DisordersRead complete article

Adults and HH

Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Patients with Hypothalamic Hamartomas

M.J.B.M. Veendrick-Meekes, W.M.A. Verhoeven, M.G. van Erp,
W. van Blarikom, S. Tuinier, Epilepsy & Behavior 11: 218-221 © 2007 Elsevier Inc

Read complete article

Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adult Patients with Hypothalamic Hamartoma

Sherese Ali, John Moriarty, Nandini Mullatti, Anthony David, Epilepsy & Behavior 9:111–118 © 2006 Elsevier Inc

Read complete article

Hypothalamic Hamartoma in Adults

Mullatti, Epileptic Disorders 2003 5: 201-4

Epileptic Disorders Read complete article

HH, The Hypothalamius and Generalized Epilepsy

Gelastic epilepsy and hypothalamic hamartomas: neuroanatomical analysis of brain lesions in 100 patients

Josef Parvizi, Scheherazade Le, Brett L. Foster et al, Brain (2011) 134(10): 2960-2968

Read complete article

Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hypothalamic Hamartoma: A Rare Case

Yang An-chao, Zhang Kai, Zhang Jian-guo, Liu Huan-guang, Chen Ning, Ge Ming, Bai Qin and Meng Fan-gang, Chinese Medical Journal 2011;124(7):1114-1117 © 2011

Read complete article

Giant solid-cystic hypothalamic hamartoma Case report

Christian Dorfer, M.D., Gregor Kasprian, M.D., Angelika Mühlebner, M.D., and Thomas Czech, M.D, Neurosurg Focus 30(2) E7 2011 Journal of Neurosurgery

ABSTRACT: Hypothalamic hamartomas are rare lesions for which different classification schemes have been proposed. The authors report on an exceptionally large solid-cystic hamartoma that led to hydrocephalus, precocious puberty, and intractable gelastic seizures. They discuss potential mechanisms of the development of hypothalamic hamartomas.

Read complete article

Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy in a patient with a hypothalamic hamartoma Case report

Carlo Efisio Marras, M.D., Michele Rizzi, M.D., Flavio Villani, M.D., Giuseppe Messina, M.D., Francesco Deleo, M.D., Roberto Cordella, Ph.D., and Angelo Franzini, M.D., Neurosurg Focus 30(2) E4 2011 Journal of Neurosurgery

ABSTRACT:Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are developmental malformations associated with a range of neurological problems, including intractable seizures. There is increasing evidence of the epileptogenicity of the hamartoma and of the inhomogeneous distribution of the epileptic abnormalities within the malformation. The management strategy for treatment and results differ according to the insertion plane and the extension of the malformation into the hypothalamus. Cases characterized by extensive involvement of the hypothalamus are particularly challenging.The authors describe the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy and a large hypothalamic hamartoma with an extensive area of attachment. The patient underwent implantation of 2 deep brain electrodes. The intraoperative recording showed a synchronous interictal epileptic discharge in the left temporal lobe and on the left side of the lesion. The patient was treated with chronic high-frequency stimulation. No side effects due to the stimulation were reported. At 18 months' follow-up, a reduction in complex partial seizure frequency was reported, but no significant reduction in overall seizure frequency was noticed (p = 0.14, t-test). The authors report on neurophysiological studies of the relationship between HH and epilepsy, and also discuss the literature on chronic high-frequency stimulation, including its rationale and the results of chronic stimulation of various targets for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy due to HH.

Read complete article

Management of Refractory Complex Partial Seizures: Current State of the Art

David Treiman, Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2010 vol 6 p297-308 © 2010 Trieman, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Read complete article

Gelastic Seizures: Not Always Hypothalamic Hamartoma

Cheung and others, Epileptic Disorders 2007 9 (4): 453-8 © 2007 Epileptic Disorders.

Epileptic Disorders Read complete article

The Hypothalamic Hamartoma: A Model of Subcortical Epileptogenesis and Encephalopathy

John Kerrigan, Harold Rekate et al, Semin Pediatr Neurol 12:119-131 © 2005 Elsevier Inc.

Read complete article

The Anatomy and Embryology of the Hypothalamus in relation to Hypothalamic Hamartoma

Jeremy Freeman, Epileptic Disorders 2003 5 177-86

Epileptic DisordersRead complete article

From Hypothalamic Hamartoma to Cortex, What can be learned from Depth Recordings and Stimulation

Kahane and others, Epileptic Disorders 2003 5: 205-17

Epileptic DisordersRead complete article

Generalised Epilepsy in Hypothalamic Hamartomas, Evolution and Postoperative Resolution

Harvey, in Neurology March 2003; 60:762-767, © Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins

Read Summary

Surgical Treatments

Surgical approaches to hypothalamic hamartomas

Scott D. Wait, M.D., Adib A. Abla, M.D., Brendan D. Killory, M.D., Peter Nakaji, M.D., and Harold L. Rekate, M.D., Neurosurg Focus 30(2) E2 2011 Journal of Neurosurgery

ABSTRACT:

Object: Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are devastating lesions causing refractory epilepsy, rage attacks, social ineptitude, and precocious puberty. Microsurgical and/or endoscopic resection offers an excellent risk/benefit profile for cure or improvement of epilepsy.

Methods: The authors reviewed a prospective database maintained during the first 7 years of the Barrow Hypothalamic Hamartoma program. They describe and illustrate their surgical methods, and they review data from several previous publications regarding surgical outcome.

Results: To date, the authors have performed surgery in 165 patients for symptomatic HHs. Patients underwent an endoscopic, transcallosal, or skull base approach, or multiple approaches. Twenty-six patients (15.8%) required more than 1 treatment for their HH.

Conclusions: Microsurgical and endoscopic resection of symptomatic HHs are technically demanding but can be performed safely with excellent results and an acceptable risk profile. Meticulous attention to the subtleties of surgical management helps optimize outcomes.

Read complete article

Repeat surgery for hypothalamic hamartoma in refractory epilepsy

Sandipan Pati, M.D., Adib A. Abla, M.D., Harold L. Rekate, M.D., and Yu-Tze Ng, M.D, Neurosurg Focus 30(2) E3 2011 Journal of Neurosurgery

ABSTRACT:

Object: Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) often cause pharmacoresistent epilepsy, incapacitating behavioral abnormalities, and cognitive decline. Surgical intervention offers the patient the best opportunity of seizure resolution, which occurs in approximately 50%–60% of patients, and improvement in both cognitive and behavioral difficulties. For those in whom the initial operation has failed, further medical treatment options remain quite limited, whereas, in some cases, a second surgery may improve seizure outcome. The authors retrospectively reviewed their surgical cases to document the success rate and complications of reoperations in patients with HHs.

Methods: Data were obtained from the HH epilepsy surgery database at the Barrow Neurological Institute between 2003 and 2010. Surgical treatment consisted of open and endoscopic procedures, as well as radiosurgery. Demographic details, seizure history, presurgical evaluation, and postoperative follow-up data were evaluated.

Results: In the last 7 years, 21 (13%) of 157 patients underwent reoperation after an initial epilepsy operation. The initial surgical approach in the 21 patients included: endoscopic (8 patients [38%]), transcallosal (8 patients [38%]), orbitozygomatic (3 patients [14%]), and radiosurgery (2 patients [10%]). Of the 8 patients who initially underwent endoscopic resection, repeat procedures included: radiosurgery in 4 (50%), an orbitozygomatic approach in 2 (25%), repeat endoscopy in 1 (12.5%), and a transcallosal approach in 1 (12.5%). Repeat procedures after an initial transcallosal resection included: endoscopic resection in 2 (25%); radiosurgery in 1 (12%); an orbitozygomatic approach in 2 (25%), and repeat transcallosal surgery in 3 (38%). Predominant seizure types that recurred after the first surgery were gelastic seizures, complex partial seizures, and tonic-clonic seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging in all patients prior to reoperation demonstrated either residual HH and/or connection with the mammillary bodies. Review of patients with more than 6 months of follow-up since the last surgery showed greater than 90% reduction in seizures in 4 patients (19%) and by 50%–90% in 10 patients (48%). Two patients were seizure free, and in 5 patients (24%) there was no change in seizure frequency. Following reoperation, none of the patients had any worsened behavioral issues such as increased rage attacks or disruptive violent behavior. New postoperative complications after reoperation included hemiparesis, thalamic stroke (asymptomatic and symptomatic), hyperphagia, and panhypopituitarism.

Conclusions: Reoperation should be considered in selected patients with HH in whom initial epilepsy surgery fails because more than half the patients have significant reductions in seizure.

Read complete article

Long-term outcome after emergency resection of hypothalamic hamartomas for status gelasticus

Sandipan Pati, M.D., Reena G Rastogi, M.D., Adib A. Abla, M.D., Harold L. Rekate, M.D., and Yu-Tze Ng, M.D Neurosurg Focus 30(2) E5 2011 Journal of Neurosurgery

ABSTRACT:

Object: Gelastic seizures are epileptic events characterized by bouts of laughter. They are rare and mostly associated with hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs). Status gelasticus, a rare form of status epilepticus, is defined as a prolonged cluster of gelastic seizures (> 20–30 minutes) without necessarily involving loss of awareness between seizures. Emergency resection of the hamartoma is highly effective in these situations and should be considered as early as possible. The authors retrospectively reviewed their surgical cases to document the success, complications, and long-term follow-up after emergency resection of HHs for status gelasticus.

Methods: The authors report on a retrospective case series from a single tertiary care center. Three patients who presented with status gelasticus underwent emergency resection of HHs. Demographic details, seizure history, medical treatment, and postoperative follow-up data were evaluated. Long-term follow-up (minimum 2 years) data were obtained either from the last clinic visit notes or via telephone and e-mail contacts. The institutional review board at St. Joseph's Hospital approved this study.

Results: In the last 7 years, of 157 patients who underwent HH resection, the resection was performed on an emergency basis for status gelasticus in 3 cases. At emergency surgery, these 3 patients ranged in age from 9 months to 3.5 years. All of the patients were boys. Delalande and Fohlen Type II, III, and IV lesions were present in the 3 patients. Surgical approaches for resection of HH included an orbitozygomatic, transcallosal anterior interforniceal approach and endoscopic resection. Status gelasticus was terminated following emergency surgery in all cases, and 1 patient was seizure free. Postsurgical complications included, in 1 case, a small right thalamic infarct with mild transient left hemiparesis, which completely resolved within 2 days. Within 2 years of their original surgery, 2 patients underwent further elective surgeries (endoscopic resection and radiosurgery for persistent symptomatic seizures). Follow-up since their most recent surgery ranged from 8 months to 2 years. Two patients were seizure free and 1 patient had greater than 50% reduction in seizures.

Conclusions: Status gelasticus associated with HHs can be successfully terminated by emergency resection of the HH. Long-term follow-up in the present series suggests good seizure freedom results or at least greater than 50% reduction in seizures, although repeat operations were necessary.

 

Read complete article

Surgical Management of Hypothalamic Hamartoma in Patients with Gelastic Epilepsy

Addas and others, Neurosurg. Focus 25(3) E8 2008 ©

ABSTRACT: Gelastic epilepsy (GE) associated with hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) is now a well-characterized clinical syndrome consisting of gelastic seizures starting in infancy, medically refractory seizures with or without the development of multiple seizure types, and behavioral and cognitive decline. It has been postulated that the development of the HHGE syndrome is a result of a progressive epileptic encephalopathy or secondary epileptogenesis, which is potentially reversible with treatment of the HH. A variety of surgical options for the treatment of HHs exist, including open and endoscopic procedures, radiosurgery, interstitial radiotherapy, and stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation. Surgical treatment can result in seizure freedom in up to 50% of patients and can be accompanied by significant improvements in behavior, cognition, and quality of life. Partial treatment of HHs may be sufficient to reduce seizure frequency and improve behavior and quality of life with less risk. A component of reversible cognitive dysfunction may be present in some patients with an HH-GE syndrome.

Read complete article

Radiosurgery for Hypothalamic Hamartoma

Romanelli, Striano and others published Neurosurg. Focus 24 (5): E9 2008 ©

ABSTRACT: Radiosurgery plays an important role in the treatment of refractory seizures induced by hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs). These lesions, deeply located and surrounded by a delicate vascular and neuronal network, are often associated with catastrophic epilepsy leading to progressive cognitive and behavioral deterioration. Surgical approaches include microsurgical resection, endoscopic resection or disconnection, radiofrequency lesioning, and interstitial brachytherapy. Radiosurgery is an emerging treatment modality for HHs, which provides excellent seizure outcomes and no lasting complications to date.

Read complete article

Assessment of cognitive functions before and after stereotactic interstitial radiosurgery of hypothalamic hamartomas in patients with gelastic seizures

A. Quiske, J. Unterrainer, K. Wagner, L. Frings, T. Breyer, U. Halsband,
C. Ostertag, C.E. Elger, A. Ebner, I. Tuxhorn, J.-P. Ernst, B.J. Steinhoff,
T. Mayer, A. Schulze-Bonhage, Epilepsy & Behavior 10:328-332 © 2007 Elsevier Inc.

Read complete article

Gamma Knife Surgery for Epilepsy Related to Hypothalamic Hamartomas

Jean Regis et al, Semin Pediatr Neurol 14:73-79 © 2007 Elsevier Inc.

Read complete article

Treatment Options for Gelastic Epilepsy Due to Hypothalamic Hamartoma: Interstitial Radiosurgery

Adreas Schulze-Bonhage et al, Semin Pediatr Neurol 14:80-87 © 2007 Elsevier Inc.

Read complete article

Hypothalamic Hamartoma Treatment: Surgical Resection With the Transcallosal Approach

Jeffrey Rosenfeld et al, Semin Pediatr Neurol 14:88-98 © 2007 Elsevier Inc.

Read complete article

Endoscopic Resection of Hypothalamic Hamartoma for Refractory Epilepsy: Prelimnary Report

Yu-tze Ng and Harold Rekate, Semin Pediatr Neurol 14:99-105 © 2007 Elsevier Inc.

Read complete article

Transcallosal Resection of Hypothalamic Hamartomas in Patients with Intractable Epilepsy

Simon Harvey et al, Epileptic Disorders, 2003 5: 257-65

Read complete article

Hypothalamic Hamartoma with Refractory Epilepsy: Surgical Procedures and Results in 18 Patients

Fohlen, Delalande, Epileptic Disorders, 2003 5: 267-73

Read complete article

Stereotactic Surgical Approach to Hypothalamic Hamartomas

Kuzniecky and Guthrie, Epileptic Disorders 2003 5: 275-80 © 2003 Epileptic Disorders.

Read complete article

Transcallosal Resection of Hypothalamic Hamartoma with Control of Seizures in Children with Gelastic Epilepsy

Rosenfeld et al, Neurosurgery Vol 48 No.1 Jan 2001 p108 – 118 © Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins

Read complete article

Pallister Hall and Heritable Syndrome

Heritable Syndromes with Hypothalamic Hamartomas and seizures: Using Rare Syndromes to Understand More Common Disorders

Leslie Biesecker, Epileptic Disorders 2003 5:235-8

Read complete article

Epilepsy and Hypothalamic Hamartoma: Look at the Hand Pallister-Hall Syndrome

Minotti, Epileptic Disorders 2003 5 27-30

Read complete article

MRI Imaging

EEG and Video EEG Monitoring in HH Patients

Matthew Troester, Rachel Haine-Schlagel, Yu-tze Ng, Kevin Chapman, Steve Chung,Cornelia Drees, Erin Prenger,Harold Rekate, and John F. Kerrigan, Epilepsia, **(*):1–7, 2011

ABSTRACT:A recent (July 2011) research paper published in Epilepsia suggests that EEG and VEEG monitoring has limited utility in patients with epilepsy caused by hypothalamic hamartoma.

Read complete article

MR Imaging and Spectroscopic Study of Epileptogenic Hypothalamic Hamartoma. Analysis of 72 Cases

Harvey, Rosenfeld et al AJNR 25: 450-462, March 2004

Read complete article